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The more we know about how pathogenic bacteria arrive to and colonize our bodies, the better we can take measures to help our immune system combat them. While most bacteria that we coexist with are beneficial to us or at the very least, neutral, our body is constantly battling against microorganisms that may harms us.…

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Although bacteria are unicellular and may be freely swimming in water or crawling on sediments, in many environments they live in clumps called biofilms. Biofilms are groups of bacteria that grow on a surface and huddle together by sticky carbohydrates that they produce. Similar to how emperor penguins pack tightly to…

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Imagine that you make delicious apple pies, but you know nothing about growing apple trees. You make a lot of pies-more than you need or eat. When you need more apples, you go to a farmer friend who has a whole orchard. He doesn’t know how to cook, so you are happy to bake apple pies in exchange. This type of win-win…

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Unlike humans, who depend on oxygen to breathe, bacteria have the ability to breathe many other molecules besides oxygen. While most of our Earth is soaked in oxygen, there are areas that have little to none. In sediments at the bottom of lakes, oceans and marshes, oxygen is consumed rapidly within few centimeters…