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All life on Earth has to respire. For us this means inhaling oxygen to fuel our metabolism and exhaling waste gases like carbon dioxide. When we do this, we move the energy  from the food we eat to the oxygen we breathe, creating a flow of energy that our cells use for growth. This is called respiration. However, not…

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In the Marvel Universe, Bruce Banner exposed his body to high doses of gamma radiation during an experiment in his lab. The gamma radiation deformed Bruce’s DNA, so whenever he became angry, he could turn into the Hulk. In the real world, gamma radiation is a type of high energy radiation that is extremely dangerous…

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When scientists think of a very early Earth, they think of a hot, hostile place not too long after the birth of the solar system more than 4 billion years ago. This time in the Earth’s history is called the Hadean Eon, named after the ancient Greek God of the Underworld Hades, and would have been just about when the…

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The line “times they are a changin’,” as Bob Dylan sang in 1964, describes the state of cannabis research aptly. As cannabis and related products are becoming increasingly accepted or legalized around the world, it has opened doors for researching the drug and it’s many variants and effects. Studies on the…

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A new investigation into antibiotics resistance shows just how big of an issue antibiotic-resistant bacteria is right now, and we need to find a way to stop these infections from occurring and affecting so many people around the world.

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Sexually reproducing animals have their sex determined through many mechanisms. Sex in reptiles such as alligators is determined by egg temperature during incubation. Some species, like the clownfish, can be hermaphroditic, shifting from one gender to another depending on the environmental conditions. However, most…

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Most fish farming in the ocean uses net cages that float because it is easier to feed and remove fish at the surface and because some fish species require access to air. However, the surface of the ocean experiences a wide variety of temperatures, salinity (how salty the water is), and wave action depending on the…