Oxygen, nitrogen, and what happens when biology gets involved How the Great Oxidation Event and photosynthesis created the nitrogen cycle we know today

When studying Earth’s past, researchers want to understand how nutrients like nitrogen cycled and the impact biology had on them. Scientists rely on ancient rock, soil, fossils, and marine sediment to understand the world that used to be.  Approximately 2.5 READ MORE

New Sex Chromosomes Created After Decades Long Experiment Hybrid swordtail fish may reveal secrets about how new chromosomes and species form

Sexually reproducing animals have their sex determined through many mechanisms. Sex in reptiles such as alligators is determined by egg temperature during incubation. Some species, like the clownfish, can be hermaphroditic, shifting from one gender to another depending on the environmental READ MORE

What Do Bats and the Ebola Virus Have in Common? Researchers find modern day bats share a gene with an ancestor of Ebola, and may actually be using it

Genes are the blueprints of organisms. Your hair color, height, voice, and many other traits, all are determined by the genes. You inherited half of these genes from your mother and half from your father when you were conceived. However, READ MORE

Can You Teach an Old Gene New Tricks? Scientists put an ancient gene into modern bacteria, like pressing rewind and play on evolution.

By Grishma Gupte BMSIS Young Scientist Program Evolution explains how living things change over successive generations, giving rise to diversity. Across the evolutionary history of Earth, the formation, changes, and extinction of species have been observed. Even though evolution happens READ MORE

Skulls of Dinosaurs Give Clues About Their Diets Beak specializations let paleontologists know how changes in diets affect skull shape and influence evolution in oviraptors

The term “Darwin’s finches” was first used in 1936 to describe a group of birds from the Galápagos Islands. One of the key differences between each species of finch was the drastic difference in beak size and its effect on READ MORE

Dinosaur Brain Anatomy Helps to Clarify Evolutionary History The largest dinosaurs ever recorded came from small, bipedal, and potentially carnivorous beginnings

A paper authored by Mario Bronzanti, Oliver Rauhut, Jonathas Bittencourt, and Max Langer in September of this year traced the evolution of the brain in the largest animals to ever walk the planet—the sauropods. The authors studied a braincase from READ MORE

Resurrecting Ancient Proteins and Simulating Evolution in the Lab The ancient version of a special protein caused bacterial cells to multiply faster.

How does a cell stay alive? How do molecules in a cell “know” how to react with one another? Does this chemistry become more complex over time, and if so, why? In Dr. Betül Kacar’s lab at Harvard University, scientists READ MORE