Do humans need to be altruistic to make it to Mars? Altruism is selfless action for the well-being of others. Philosophical ideas suggest that the vision of space settlement can be achieved by coordinated altruism over a long time.

Altruism, in principle, is selfless action for the well-being of others. Altruism may help us achieve our space exploration goals. Space agencies like NASA, SpaceX, and ESA  are funding new projects to commercialize asteroids, the Moon, and Mars. These projects READ MORE

Early Martian life may have used sulfur as an energy source Using an environment on Earth that simulates early Mars conditions, researchers found an abundance of bacteria that get their energy from sulfur-containing molecules, suggesting a new focus in the search for biosignatures on the Red Planet.

Using an environment on Earth that simulates early Mars conditions, researchers found an abundance of bacteria that get their energy from sulfur-containing molecules, suggesting a new focus in the search for biosignatures on the Red Planet.

Neptune-sized planet could be the exposed core of a far-away gas giant Astronomers discover a planet that had less hydrogen and helium than was expected, and so it could be an exposed gas giant core left over from the formation of the solar system around it.

We know very little about the insides of planets. For Earth, scientists have been able to use seismic waves to map out the various layers. For planets like Jupiter and Saturn, however, who are mostly made up of gases like READ MORE

Ice-covered moon shows promise for harboring life Could there be life on Saturn's moon? Hydrogen found in the icy plumes of Enceladus may be evidence for hydrothermal processes that could support life.

Since we are currently unable to visit some of the distant places in our solar system, we send probes to visit them for us. Only four spacecraft have visited Saturn, and for roughly 20 years some of the best data READ MORE

How does life handle the harshness of space? Experiments on the International Space Station showed that lichens, a combination of algae and fungi, survived in space-like, flight, and Mars-like environments.

Experiments on the International Space Station found that lichens, a combination of algae and fungi, survived in space-like, flight, and Mars-like environments.

A new understanding of weather on Saturn The Cassini spacecraft revealed the atmosphere of Saturn has large regions that don’t cycle to the poles and that the atmosphere is filled with waves that disrupt circulation.

The Cassini spacecraft revealed the atmosphere of Saturn has large regions that don’t cycle to the poles and that the atmosphere is filled with waves that disrupt circulation.

Long Space Flights Cause Fluid Build-up in the Brain On Earth, gravity moves the fluids in our body downward from our head to our feet. But, the lack of gravity in space can cause an increased fluid build-up in our head. Scientists have found that spending a long time in space expands the size and volume of fluid in the brain, leading to long-term health problems.

On Earth, gravity moves the fluids in our body downward from our head to our feet. But, the lack of gravity in space can cause an increased fluid build-up in our head. Scientists have found that spending a long time in space expands the size and volume of fluid in the brain, leading to long-term health problems.

We can learn about life on other planets by studying viruses These scientists suggest that perhaps viruses were the first "life form" on Earth, a provocative idea!

Scientists from the University of Zurich and the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, as well as the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have come together to summarize recent evidence has challenged our working theory on the origin READ MORE

Can Artificial Intelligence find new planets for us? Artificial intelligence could identify exoplanet signals faster in the data collected by NASA’s TESS mission.

On a clear night you might easily see Jupiter, Mars or other planets from our solar system. This is how astronomers from thousands of years ago discovered the first planets. We cannot directly observe planets that are farther out in READ MORE

Safety in Numbers: Bacterial Resistance in Space Bacterial cells were found to be more resistant to space hazards when grouped together as aggregates and could even protect secondary bacterial species.

Space is a dangerous place. Astronauts are wrapped up in layers of protection that regulate pressure, temperature, and oxygen. This protection has been developed through decades of medical research and testing, just to keep astronauts alive. The main space hazards READ MORE