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Rattus rattus, commonly known as the black rat or house rat has been recognized as “one of the most invasive species worldwide”. These pesky rats have set their sights on the delicate system of lava tube caves in Hawaii.

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Although bacteria are unicellular and may be freely swimming in water or crawling on sediments, in many environments they live in clumps called biofilms. Biofilms are groups of bacteria that grow on a surface and huddle together by sticky carbohydrates that they produce. Similar to how emperor penguins pack tightly to…