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Space is a hostile place. It has numerous stressors which make it seem impossible for Earth-like life to thrive there. Some of these stresses include harmful ultraviolet radiation, anaerobic conditions (environment devoid of oxygen), high temperature, and varying pressure. Extremophiles are organisms that live in…

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Cement is one of those common building materials that you can find just about anywhere. When the cement starts to get cracked, fixing it is generally an easy task that involves widening the crack slightly before filling it with more cement. Now, imagine having to fix cracking cement that is buried 1 kilometer (3281…

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Various industries rely on accurate detection and identification of bacterial species. For example, food-processing plants often have to test their products for bacterial contamination to ensure it is safe for human consumption. In hospitals, a quick and accurate method to identify bacteria can help doctors prescribe…