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Imagine what it would be like to be an astronaut landing on Mars for the first time. The red planet has little more than dust and rocks as well as some frozen water and gases in the air. If you wanted to build a shelter or structure, you would need to carry the materials from Earth in your cramped spaceship. What if we…

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How many times have you hurt yourself badly? How many friends and family members do you know who suffer from sharp pain? In many of these situations doctors will prescribe opioids to numb the pain and prevent the development of bad habits such as avoiding movement. These drugs have gone a long way to make our medical…

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All life on Earth has to respire. For us this means inhaling oxygen to fuel our metabolism and exhaling waste gases like carbon dioxide. When we do this, we move the energy  from the food we eat to the oxygen we breathe, creating a flow of energy that our cells use for growth. This is called respiration. However, not…