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Most fish farming in the ocean uses net cages that float because it is easier to feed and remove fish at the surface and because some fish species require access to air. However, the surface of the ocean experiences a wide variety of temperatures, salinity (how salty the water is), and wave action depending on the…

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Up to about 200 years ago, the passenger pigeon was one of the most numerous vertebrate animals on Earth. The species had an estimated 3 to 5 billion individuals at the peak of its existence and had such big flock sizes that they were known to block out the sun. However, this changed during the early 1800s when they…

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Since September is National Mushroom Month, it’s fitting to think about the incredible things fungi can do. You may be familiar with mushrooms in grocery stores or some of those visible in the forest. When it comes to fungal diversity, these examples are only the tip of the iceberg. While some may be delicious…

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Harmful algal blooms are becoming an increasing problem in areas around the world, including the Great Lakes, where drinking water is obtained from surface water sources, such as lakes and rivers. When agricultural nutrients and urban waste runoff enters these bodies of water, microbes such as cyanobacteria can consume…

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by Nicole Jacobs Blue Marble Space Institute of Science Young Scientist Program Before a baby is born in Taiwan, both the development of its brain and its intellectual performance are already at risk. A 2014 study of 545 pairs of both mothers and infants living in North Taiwan has shown that harmful chemicals and…

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In biology, evolution is how populations change over time from their common ancestor. This process has been happening on Earth since life first began, over 3.5 billion years ago. Evolution, however; is not driven by one factor, but many, from climate conditions to predator/prey relationships. And even now, 3.5 billion…

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Integrated Multitrophic Aquaculture (IMTA) may be the future of aquaculture. Compared to traditional farms that only grow one species, IMTA farms produce multiple edible products and provide increased sustainability. These integrated systems use the waste products from one species to grow another, and often the lowest…

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Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are important in our lives as we use them frequently in our smartphones, laptops, tablets, power tools, and electric vehicles. They are even used to help power the Mars Curiosity rover! Typically, graphite, the form of carbon found in pencils, is commonly used as an active anode…

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One of the first steps of any recipe is to wash your produce. In today’s global food system, fruits and vegetables make a lot of stops before reaching your plate, so you can never be too careful. In fact, contamination of produce by bacteria like Salmonella is a major public health concern. But, that’s not all!…